Laminated glass is a simple sandwiched composite structure, while being widely used in the automotive industry as windshield glazings. It is considered to be safety glass due to its excellent performance in absorbing impact energy and bonding glass fragments. Meanwhile, the impact failure patterns of an automotive windshield glazing contribute to the traffic accident reconstruction. In recent decades, a growing interest has been devoted to the impact failure analysis of automotive laminated glass by means of numerical simulations. The purpose of this work is to present a comprehensive review concerning this aspect. We start by introducing six numerical algorithms for the modeling of the principal damage pattern, glass-ply cracking, followed by the introduction of material models for the plastic interlayer, PVB, and then address three numerical techniques for the adhesion modeling. Three kinds of laminated glass models are summarized. Finally, the performance of the numerical algorithms on the impact failure analysis of laminated glass in terms of glass-ply cracking and acceleration history is thoroughly discussed.
An article discussed during the International Conference on Applications and Design in Mechanical Engineering 2015 (ICADME2015)
The main objective of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of low velocity impact loading on the pressure bearing capacity of the E-glass/epoxy composite pipes. The pipes were produced by the conventional filament winding technique comprises of six axisymmetric layers with (±55°)3 winding angles. The specimens were impacted at three different energy levels which are 5 J, 7.5 J, and 10 J using an instrumented drop weight impact testing machine (IMATEK IM10). The samples were then filled with water and subjected to burst test until distinct leakage failure is observed. The results indicate that the peak force and contact time increases with increased of impact energy. For impacted samples, the pressure tests show that the burst strength of the pipes decreases with increase in energy levels during impact loading. During the burst tests, several damage types named leakage and eruption were observed.
This work focuses on the study of medium velocity (~70 m/s) oblique impacts on the lower surface of helicopter blades. In this study, the influence of the local curvature of the blade on the response to an oblique impact is investigated. A numerical study is also performed. It is shown that for the geometries involved in the design of helicopter blades, the curvature does not have any influence on the structural response to an impact. However, in the case of oblique impacts, the curvature can change locally the impact angle so that the damage is different than for impacts on a planar sample.
Read more at : http://www.escm.eu.org/eccm16/assets/0339.pdf