Premature failure of a taper roller bearing was investigated to arrive at the root cause. The investigation included visual examination, chemical analysis, optical metallography, hardness and estimation of retained austenite. The metallurgical properties were as per the specification. The reason for premature failure was traced to misalignment that led to uneven load distribution of the rollers and the raceway. The failure mechanism illustrated was in agreement with the test results and also in concurrence with the earlier theoretical studies found in literature.