This paper, published on Engineering Failure Analysis, august 2017, présents corrosion failure analysis of an underground natural gas pipeline. The pipeline material grade is API 5L X65 with 10-in ID. The pipeline transfers multiphase fluid (gas, condensate, and water) from a gas well to a gas gathering plant, located 4200 m away from the well site. A portion of the line failed due to pitting corrosion under unknown circumstances. Based on visual and microscopic analyses and reviewing the background information, the following pitting corrosion sequences were identified: the oversized pipeline changed the dominant flow regime to “stratified”. In the stratified flow regime, the accompanying water phase accumulated in the pipelines’ low points. Considerable concentration of calcium ions along with high pH in CO2 media favored precipitation of calcium carbonate. The relatively thick scales adhered to the pipe surface were partially loosened and removed by the regional turbulent flow. This exposed the fresh steel surface to the corrosive media. The uncovered areas acted as the preferential anodic sites coupled with nearby large cathodic sites which were covered by scales and/or corrosion products. Under such conditions, pits emerged on the steel surface until one of them grew faster and failed the gas pipeline.
ScienceDirect.com publishes a new « Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis« .
A failure incident of heat-exchange tubes in ammonia evaporators, which suffered from unexpected wall thinning after only one-year service with respect to their original design lifetime of fifteen years, was reported and carefully analyzed. The analysis results demonstrated that the unexpected wall thinning of tubes was primarily ascribed to multiple corrosion factors including uniform corrosion, pitting and interaction behavior between them. Relative failure mechanisms were discussed in detail and prevention measures were also proposed for ammonia evaporators under similar operating condition.
Une analyse de défaillance de tubes de condenseurs fabriqués en acier inoxydable 204SS a été menée pour trouver l’origine des fissurations observées dans le matériau d’origine du tube, hors zone soudure ou de zone thermiquement affectée. Cette étude a révélé que le matériau d’origine du tube a été très sensibilisé et que le post-traitement de recuit n’a été pas exécuté par le fabricant de tube. En conclusion le tube de condenseur s’est fissuré prématurément en raison de la sensibilisation intergranulaire du matériau et de la présence de contraintes résiduelles
Un cas de corrosion intergranulaire sur aluminium provoqué l’environnement marin aux îles Fidji
The failure of aluminum alloy stringer on the tour airplane servicing in the coastal environment of the Fiji Islands were analyzed. Through the analysis of surface topographies and failure characteristics and the consideration of service environment, the evolvement of failure process and the failure mechanisms were analyzed. Findings showed that ultraviolet radiation, temperature, high-humidity and salt spray caused the aging failure of structure coating and then pitting corrosion occurred in the oxide film on aluminum alloy. With the ongoing corrosion along the grain boundary, intergranular corrosion appeared. When the intergranular corrosion continued developing to the adjacent layers, denudation occurred. The volume expansion effect of corrosion products caused the stress concentration on the tip of corroded area and resulted in the initiation of cracks.
Pour en savoir plus : http://www.scientific.net/AMR.430-432.1509